Addiction is a chronic dysfunction of the brain system that involves reward, motivation, and memory. It's a disorder that causes a person to compulsively seek out a substance or behavior, even when it causes harm or interferes with achieving life goals. In other words, addiction is an inability to stop using a substance or engaging in a behavior despite the negative consequences. The types of addiction vary, but the most common are alcohol use disorder, marijuana addiction, amphetamine addiction, cocaine addiction, nicotine addiction, opioid addiction, video game addiction, gambling addiction, and sexual addiction.
The only behavioral addiction recognized by the DSM-5 and the ICD-10 is gambling addiction. With the introduction of ICD-11, gambling addiction was annexed. It's important to note that there is a difference between drug dependence and addiction. Drug dependence is a disorder in which cessation of drug use produces an unpleasant state of withdrawal, which can lead to increased drug use. Addiction is the compulsive use of a substance or the performance of a behavior that is independent of abstinence.
Addiction can occur in the absence of dependence, and dependence can occur in the absence of addiction, although the two often occur together. The signs of addiction vary depending on the type of substance or behavior involved. Generally speaking, signs of addiction include cravings for the substance or behavior; difficulty controlling use; neglecting responsibilities; social isolation; and physical and psychological changes. The causes of addiction are complex and varied. Factors such as genetics, environment, mental health issues, and trauma can all contribute to the development of an addiction.
It's important to note that no one factor alone causes an addiction; rather, it's a combination of factors that can lead to an individual developing an addiction. Addiction is typically divided into four stages: pre-addiction, early stage, middle stage, and late stage. In the pre-addiction stage, an individual may be experimenting with substances or behaviors but has not yet developed an addiction. In the early stage, an individual may be using substances or engaging in behaviors more frequently and may be experiencing some negative consequences as a result. In the middle stage, an individual may be struggling to control their use and may be experiencing more serious consequences as a result.
In the late stage, an individual may be unable to control their use and may be experiencing severe consequences as a result. In conclusion, it's important to understand that addiction is a chronic recurrent brain disease that is defined by physical and psychological dependence on drugs, alcohol, or behavior. It's important to recognize the signs of addiction and seek help if you or someone you know is struggling with an addiction.